Below is the annotated bibliography from the research project on the issues of sports leagues as media networks. Included in the annotations are links to the sources discussed.




Balto, D. A. (1999). Networks and Exclusivity: Antitrust Analysis to Promote Network Competition. George Mason Law Review, 523(7), 523+. Retrieved March 6, 2010, from http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/gmlr7&div=26&g_sent=1&collection=journals#533
"This article addresses emerging issues involving exclusivity and networks. Exclusivity arrangements have often been at issue in some of the most important joint venture and network antitrust decisions. As networks become an increasingly prominent part of the U.S. economy, grappling with issues of exclusivity will be critical for both antitrust enforcers and decision makers. ... [E]xplains why exclusivity is a concern to antitrust enforcers, particularly where exclusivity is used by a network." [Taken from introduction]

Bellamy Jr., R. V., & Walker, J. R. (2005). Whatever Happened to Synergy? MLB as Media Product. Nine, 13(2), 19+. Retrieved March 6, 2010, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009060967
"Why has there been a reversal of what seemed a logical trend: the joint media/sports ownership? Does this signal a return to the individual ownership mythologized by the mainstream media and most baseball fans? Or do these deals reflect new kinds of relationships between corporate media and sports franchises? Whatever the reasons for the recent divestures, how will they affect the operation of teams and their relationships with the changing media landscape?" [Taken from article]

Boland, R. (2009, October 14). Objectivity and NFL Network | National Football Post. National Football Post | All Angles. All Access. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.nationalfootballpost.com/Objectivity-and-NFL-Network.html
Article touches on a warning given to NFL Network commentator Deion Sanders about potential conflicts of interest. Addresses the situation of a league owning a television network and how that changes all the typical rules of journalistic independence and integrity. Raises the issue of the network being a subsidiary of the very thing it covers. Talks about the tension between the NFL having it's own network and the commercial broadcast partners.

Brown, M. (2009, January 1). Interview: Tony Petitti, President and CEO, MLB Network. The Biz of Baseball : Part of the Business of Sports Network. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.bizofbaseball.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2739:interview-tony-petitti-president-and-ceo-mlb-network&catid=15:biz-of-baseball&Itemid=81
Article is an interview with Tony Petitti, President & CEO of MLB Network. Interview discusses the history of MLB Network, how it came to be and what the future plans are for the broadcast network.

Campione, B. (2008, December 5). Q & A with Sports Media Columnist Neil Best. fullcountpitch.com. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.fullcountpitch.com/2008/12/05/q-a-with-sports-media-columnist-neil-best/
Article is an interview with Neil Best of Newsday and the blog WatchDog. Among the topics discussed is the potential impact of the MLB Network, where it will fit into the baseball broadcasting landscape

Cave, M., & Crandall, R. W. (2001). Sports Rights and the Broadcast Industry. The Economic Journal, 111(469), F4-F26. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/2667955.pdf
"This paper focuses upon the competition and efficiency issues involved in the granting of broadcast rights by sports teams or leagues and their resolution on both sides of the Atlantic. What are the consequences of collective (and exclusive) selling by sports leagues of their broadcast rights? Does the control of sports broadcast rights allow the broadcaster to leverage its position and increase its monopoly power? Can leagues foreclose entry by competitors through widespread sale of broadcast rights to local or national broadcasters? Can ownership of sports teams by broadcasters have anti-competitive effects?" [Taken from article]

Cummings, D. (2009, July 2). Examining the Future of Sports Journalism. findingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/sports/2009/july/Examining-the-Future-of-Sports-Journalism.html
Article spans the major points concerning the future of sports journalism. Touches on the issue of objectivity when it comes to league-owned networks. Looks at the phenomenon of media companies owning teams and teams owning media companies. Also addressed the trend of athletes on social media.

Hutson, D. (2009). Paying the Price for Sports TV: Preventing the Strategic Misuse of the FCC's Carriage Regulations. Federal Communications Law Journal, 61(2), 407+. Retrieved March 6, 2010, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5032274453
"Sports leagues and cable companies have embarked on courses of vertical integration ... clash(ing) with the FCC's carriage regulations in a way that could cause cable prices to increase for the sports fan and non-sports fan alike. FCC regulations prohibit vertically integrated cable companies from discriminating between affiliated and nonaffiliated networks. Many cable companies have vertically integrated by acquiring interests in regional sports networks (RSNs). A more recent phenomenon is the creation of cable networks by college and professional sports leagues. These leagues distribute exclusive content through vertically integrated cable networks. In some instances, because of the high prices sought by the league-owned networks, they have been unable to reach carriage agreements with cable companies. The league-owned networks could argue that cable companies are in violation of the FCC's anti-discrimination regulations by carrying their affiliated RSNs on favorable terms, but denying carriage to nonaffiliated league-owned sports networks. This [article argues] that it would be an abuse of the FCC's regulations and against the public interest for league-owned sports networks to gain favorable carriage terms by using the anti-discrimination regulations. Sports content is expensive, and if the bargaining power of cable companies is hampered by the FCC's regulations, cable subscribers will face unreasonable price increases." [Taken from article]

Jozsa, F. P. (2003). American Sports Empire: How the Leagues Breed Success. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Book examines how professional leagues become the most successful sports organizations in the United States through deep historical research and economic analysis. Outlines the development, maturation, and revitalization of the leagues throughout the 20th century, highlighting significant events and reforms of the era and discusses the future of sports leagues in the marketplace. [Taken in part from books.google.com]

L.A. Times (2009, November 12). Sports Leagues Morphing Into Media Companies With TV Offerings. Street & Smith's SportsBusiness Daily. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/article/134859
Article examines the NFL Network and its taking on programming. Raises the question of how leagues can balance complementing vs. competing with their broadcast media partners. Addresses the phenomenon of leagues becoming media companies, complete with networks, digital entertainment and advertising.

Law, A., Harvey, J., & Kemp, S. (2002). The Global Sport Mass Media Oligopoly. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37(3-4), 279-302.
"...[M]egamergers and acquisitions creating giant media/entertainment conglomerates has been described in the sociology of sport literature as one of the key aspects of sport globalization processes now unfolding. This article looks primarily at the three major players in the sports/media game -- Disney, News Corp and AOL-Time Warner. This article posits that to get a clearer picture of the emerging media/sport complex, one must look beyond these big three. The article studies the corporate structure of six major media/entertainment conglomerates, revealing some of the intricacies of these holdings which unpack the ‘circuits of promotion’ being formed through media platforms and content convergence. Examining the corporate holdings highlights how these competitors are also involved in several joint ventures that connect them together. The article concludes that unless democratic interventions are enabled at the national and global levels, sport media consumers will remain easy targets of the global media/entertainment oligopoly. [Taken from abstract]

McCarthy, M. (2007, September 9). NFL's bold steps in news blur media boundaries. USA Today . Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2007-09-06-nfl-media_N.htm
Article discusses the NFL's launch of it's own network and its efforts to control the content and coverage the league displays. Touches on the league's efforts to drive advertisers and viewers to league owned and controlled websites. Describes the objections some are raising over the league having too much control over it's content and limiting how much and how long others can display and use it. Sets up the struggle for control as where things are headed, with the NBA and MLB also manning their own networks.

Raney, A. A., & Bryant, J. (2006). Handbook of Sports and Media (Lea's Communication Series) (1 ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Book covers the field of sports and media scholarship. Organized into historical, institutional, spectator, and critical studies perspectives. Contributors from around the world "identify and synthesize the research ... examining the development of sports media; production, coverage, and economics of sports media; sports media audiences; sports promotion; and race and gender issues in sports and media." [Taken in part from Amazon.com]

Rice, J. (2009, June 30). A legal primer: No consistent winner in the turf wars between sports leagues and news organizations -- Nieman Journalism Lab. Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University -- Aiming for the Future of Journalism. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/06/a-legal-primer-no-consistent-winner-in-the-turf-wars-between-sports-leagues-and-news-organizations/
Article takes a broader view of leagues starting to own their own broadcast outlets. Raises legal issues when the subject matter (the league) exerts itself to control dissemination of its content. Addresses battles over rights, access, issues of copyright and contract law.

Rice, J. (2009, July 2). Five ways for sports reporters to maintain a balance of power with the teams and leagues they cover -- Nieman Journalism Lab. Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University -- Aiming for the Future of Journalism. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/07/five-ways-for-sports-reporters-to-maintain-a-balance-of-power-with-the-teams-and-leagues-they-cover/
Article takes a broader view of leagues starting to own their own broadcast outlets. Offers possible solutions, methods reporters may be able to use to cope with the changing coverage landscape -- when the subject matter (the league) has the means to cover itself and attempts to exert control over dissemination of its content.



Rice, J. (2009, June 29). Sports leagues as media moguls: What happens when the people we cover start to control the news? -- Nieman Journalism Lab. Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University -- Aiming for the Future of Journalism. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/06/sports-leagues-as-media-moguls-what-happens-when-the-people-we-cover-start-to-control-the-news/
Article takes a broader view of leagues starting to own their own broadcast outlets. Raises questions of ethics and fairness of coverage when the subject matter is the one paying the bills. Looks at the ripple effects on tradition/legacy media outlets when the leagues push to have more of their product on their outlets.

Rice, J. (2009, July 1). When the league owns the network -- and pays the journalists: A new set of ethical questions arise -- Nieman Journalism Lab. Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University -- Aiming for the Future of Journalism. Retrieved February 20, 2010, from http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/07/when-the-league-owns-the-network-and-pays-the-journalists-a-new-set-of-ethical-questions-arise/
Article takes a broader view of leagues starting to own their own broadcast outlets. Raises the ethical issues when the subject matter (the league) exerts itself to control dissemination of its content. Discusses issues of fairness and accuracy in coverage and the impact league-owned networks will have on how sports are covered, particularly when it comes to scandal and negative press.

Rosner, S., & Shropshire, K. L. (2004). The Business of Sports (1 ed.). Sudbury: Jones And Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
The book is collection of readings to focus on the multibillion-dollar sports industry and the dilemmas faced by today’s sports business leaders. The text provides an overview of major sports business issues, covering professional, Olympic, and collegiate sports. The readings provide insight from a variety of stakeholders in the industry and cover major business disciplines -- management, marketing, finance, information technology, accounting, ethics and law. The book includes discussion questions, as well as graphs and tables that are used to convey relevant financial data and other statistics. [Taken in part from Amazon.com]

Schreiber, L. A. (2007, May 11). At ESPN, conflict of interest is business as usual - Columnist - ESPN. ESPN: The Worldwide Leader In Sports. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/columns/story?columnist=schreiber_leanne&id=2866241
Article is a commentary by Le Anne Schreiber, ESPN Ombudsman. She discusses her role in evaluating potential conflicts of interest that arise in the coverage of the various leagues. Raises the issue of whether the network having the broadcast rights affects the overall coverage of that sport on the network.

Warner, C. (2008, May 21). Media Curmudgeon: Media Owning Sports Teams: Bad Mix. Media Curmudgeon. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.mediacurmudgeon.com/archives/2008/05/000503print.html
Article discusses the trend of specific teams owning or controlling the media outlets that broadcast their games. In line with the issues about whole leagues controlling a network, issues of coverage, control and image are raised with respect to the specific team. Specifically cites the Yankees and their control of the YES network.

Weinbach, J. (2009, November 12). Sports league cable networks play a dangerous game. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/nov/12/entertainment/et-sports12
Article examines the NFL Network, it's push for controlling content and image of the league as well as taking on programming. Raises the question of how leagues can balance complementing vs. competing with their broadcast media partners. Addresses the phenomenon of leagues becoming media companies, complete with networks, digital entertainment and advertising.

Wenner, L. A. (1989). Media, Sports, and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
The book provides a foundation for research on the communication of sports, framed by an article outlining the parameters of the communication of sports. Points to major issues that need to be addressed in the relationship between sports and media. The text examines the theoretical, cultural and historical issues, the production of media sports programming, its content and its audience. Particular examples include a discussion of the spectacle of media sports, a comparison of Super Bowl Football and World Cup Soccer, a consideration of the spectators' enjoyment of sports violence, the rhetoric of winning and the American dream, and a fascinating examination of gender harmony and sports interests. [Taken in part from Amazon.com]

Wenner, L. A. (1998). MediaSport (1 ed.). New York: Routledge.
The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the ways in which sport and the media interact. Contributions from international experts in the fields of sports studies, sports journalism and leisure studies expand the book's scope. A wide range of subjects are address, including: sports ethics, sport and race, sport and gender, sport and violence on television, the globalization of sports and marketing sports on the Internet. [Taken in part from Amazon.com]

Yang, D. (2009, June 30). By Limiting What Athletes And Journalists Can Do, Sports Leagues Are Stifling Their Own Growth | Techdirt. Techdirt. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20090629/2334105408.shtml
Post briefly touches on the battles being fought between athletes and sports leagues when it comes to the new Web 2.0 technology. Also references examination by the Nieman Journalism Lab on sports leagues owning media outlets. Discusses superficially the efforts of sports leagues to control the flow of and access to information in regards to new online technologies.

Zimmerbucher, A. (2008, August 16). Influences of Mass Media in Sport. ArticleClick.com. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.articleclick.com/Article/Influences-of-Mass-Media-in-Sport/1028144
"The purpose of this paper is to state how mass media influences sport. The point that is being made in this paper is to show how mass media influences society, and how it influences sports within a society." Contends that "mass media is a reflection of society," with both positive and negative effects. Makes the examination through the eye of basketball. [Taken in part from article]